As the age increases, gradual changes in the dental tissues of the oral cavity take place after the complete formation of teeth. Aging leads to many changes in the teeth and oral cavity, and if not checked by a dentist, may lead to oral health problems.
Aging can lead to wear and attrition of the tooth form. The enamel surface shows a flat appearance with less detail than in newly erupted teeth due to loss of perikymata and imbrication lines with aging. The change in surface structure gives the teeth, in older individuals, a different pattern of light reflection which causes a change in color.
All the changes in enamel are based on ion-exchange mechanisms. Enamel becomes less permeable and possibly more brittle with age. The dental pulp in teeth from old individuals differs from that in younger teeth. The dental pulp, in the aged, has more fibers and fewer cells and hence a reduced volume.
The blood supply is greatly reduced including the rich plexus of capillary loops in the subodontogenic region. These changes are important because the pulp cannot be expected to have the same reparative capacity as the younger teeth. As the age increases the pulp calcifications are also found to increase in frequency, number and size. Aging shows diffuse calcification and narrowing of the root canals.